Mitochondrial Superoxide Production Decreases on Glucose-Stimulated Insulin Secretion in Pancreatic β Cells Due to Decreasing Mitochondrial Matrix NADH/NAD+ Ratio
Lydie Plecitá-Hlavatá, Hana Engstová, Blanka Holendová, Jan Tauber, Tomáš Špaček, Lucie Petrásková, Vladimír Křen, Jitka Špačková, Klára Gotvaldová, Jan Ježek, Andrea Dlasková, Katarína Smolková, Petr Ježek
Aims: Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in pancreatic β cells was expected to enhance mitochondrial superoxide formation. Hence, we elucidated relevant redox equilibria.
Results: Unexpectedly, INS-1E cells at transitions from 3 (11 mM; pancreatic islets from 5 mM) to 25 mM glucose decreased matrix superoxide release rates (MitoSOX Red monitoring validated by MitoB) and H2O2 (mitoHyPer, subtracting mitoSypHer emission). Novel double-channel fluorescence lifetime imaging, approximating free mitochondrial matrix NADHF, indicated its ∼20% decrease. Matrix NAD+F increased on GSIS, indicated by the FAD-emission lifetime decrease, reflecting higher quenching of FAD by NAD+F. The participation of pyruvate/malate and pyruvate/citrate redox shuttles, elevating cytosolic NADPHF (iNAP1 fluorescence monitoring) at the expense of matrix NADHF, was indicated, using citrate (2-oxoglutarate) carrier inhibitors and cytosolic malic enzyme silencing: All changes vanished on these manipulations. 13C-incorporation from 13C-L-glutamine into 13C-citrate reflected the pyruvate/isocitrate shuttle. Matrix NADPHF (iNAP3 monitored) decreased. With decreasing glucose, the suppressor of Complex III site Q electron leak (S3QEL) suppressor caused a higher Complex I IF site contribution, but a lower superoxide fraction ascribed to the Complex III site IIIQo. Thus, the diminished matrix NADHF/NAD+F decreased Complex I flavin site IF superoxide formation on GSIS.
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